Kaldewaij R, Koch SBJ, Hashemi MM, Zhang W, Klumpers F, & Roelofs K. (2021). Anterior prefrontal brain activity during emotion control predicts resilience to post-traumatic stress symptoms. Nature Human Behaviour, link.

Koch SBJ, van Ast V, Kaldewaij R, Hashemi MM, Zhang W, Klumpers F, & Roelofs K. (2021). Larger dentate gyrus volume as predisposing resilience factor for the development of trauma-related symptoms. Neuropsychopharmacology, pdf.

Hulsman AM, Kaldewaij R, Hashemi MM, Zhang Wei, Koch SBJ, Figner B, Roelofs K, & Klumpers F. (2021). Individual differences in costly fearful avoidance and the relation to psychophysiology. Behaviour Research and Therapy, pdf.


Koch SBJ, Morey RA, & Roelofs K. (2020). The role of the dentate gyrus in stress-related disorders. Molecular Psychiatry, pdf.

Fendt M, Parsons, MH, Apfelbach R, Carthey AJR, Dickman CR, Endres T, … , Roelofs K, …, Blumstein DT. (2020). Context and trade-offs characterize real-world threat detection systems: A review and comprehensive framework to improve research practice and resolve the translational crisis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, pdf.

Bramson B, Den Ouden H, Toni I, & Roelofs K. (2020). Improving emotional-action control by targeting long-range phase-amplitude neuronal coupling. eLife, pdf.

Zhang W, Llera A, Hashemi MM, Kaldewaij R, Koch SBJ, Beckmann CF, Klumpers F, & Roelofs K. (2020). Discriminating stress from rest based on resting-state connectivity of the human brain: A supervised machine learning study. Human Brain Mapping, pdf.

Bramson B, Folloni D, Verhagen L, Hartogsveld B, Mars RB, Toni I, & Roelofs K. (2020). Human lateral Frontal Pole contributes to control over emotional approach-avoidance actions. Journal of Neuroscience, pdf.

Hutschemaekers MHM, de Kleine RA, Davis ML, Kampman M, Smits JAJ, & Roelofs K. (2020). Endogenous testosterone levels are predictive of symptom reduction with exposure therapy in social anxiety disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, pdf.

Koch SBJ, Galli A, Volman I, Kaldewaij R, Toni I, & Roelofs K. (2020). Neural Control of Emotional Actions in Response to Affective Vocalizations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, pdf.

Schneider I, Boll S, Volman I, Roelofs K, Spohn A, Herpertz SC, & Bertsch K. (2020). Oxytocin normalizes approach-avoidance behavior in women with borderline personality disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, pdf.

Peeters DGA, Lange W, von Borries AKL, Franke B, Volman I, Homberg JR, Verkes R, & Roelofs K. (2020). Threat-avoidance tendencies moderate the link between serotonin transporter genetic variation and reactive aggression. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, pdf.

Evans BE, Huizink AC, Greaves-Lord K, Tulen JHM, Roelofs K, & van der Ende J. (2020). Urbanicity, biological stress system functioning and mental health in adolescents. PLoS ONE, pdf.


Kaldewaij R, Koch SBJ, Zhang W, Hashemi MM, Klumpers F, & Roelofs K. (2019). Frontal Control Over Automatic Emotional Action Tendencies Predicts Acute Stress Responsivity. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, pdf.

Schipper P, Hiemstra M, Bosch K, Nieuwenhuis D, Adinolfi A, Glotzbach S, Borghans B, Lopresto D, Fernández G, Klumpers F, Hermans E, Roelofs K, Henckens M, & Homberg JR. (2019). The association between serotonin transporter availability and the neural correlates of fear bradycardia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pdf.

Piray P, Ly V, Roelofs K, Cools R, & Toni I. (2019). Emotionally Aversive Cues Suppress Neural Systems Underlying Optimal Learning in Socially Anxious Individuals. Journal of Neuroscience, pdf.

Papalini S, Michels F, Kohn N, Wegman J, van Hemert S, Roelofs K, Arias-Vasquez A, & Aarts E. (2019). Stress matters: Randomized controlled trial on the effect of probiotics on neurocognition. Neurobiology of Stress, pdf.

Ikink I, Engelmann, JB, van den Bos W, Roelofs K, & Figner B. (2019). Time ambiguity during intertemporal decision-making is aversive, impacting choice and neural value coding. NeuroImage, pdf.

Zhang W, Hashemi MM, Kaldewaij R, Koch SB, Beckmann CF, Klumpers F, & Roelofs K. (2019). Acute stress alters the ‘default’ brain processing. NeuroImage, pdf.

Kaldewaij R, Koch SBJ, Zhang W, Hashemi MM, Klumpers F, & Roelofs K. (2019). High Endogenous Testosterone Levels Are Associated With Diminished Neural Emotional Control in Aggressive Police Recruits. Psychological Science, pdf.

Klumpers F, & Kroes MC (2019). Roles of the Amygdala and Basal Forebrain in Defense: a Reply to Lucyk Et al. and Implications for Defensive Action. Neuropsychology Review, pdf.

Hashemi MM, Gladwin TE, de Valk NM, Zhang W, Kaldewaij R, van Ast V, Koch SBJ, Klumpers F, & Roelofs K. (2019). Neural Dynamics of Shooting Decisions and the Switch from Freeze to Fight. Scientific Reports, pdf.

Bertsch K, Krauch M, Roelofs K, Cackowski S, Herpertz SC, & Volman I. (2019). Out of control? Acting out anger is associated with deficient prefrontal emotional action control in male patients with borderline personality disorder. Neuropharmacology, pdf.

Niermann HCM, Tyborowska A, Cillessen AHN, van Donkelaar MM, Lammertink F, Gunnar MR, Franke B, Figner B, & Roelofs K. (2019). The relation between infant freezing and the development of internalizing symptoms in adolescence: A prospective longitudinal study. Developmental Science, pdf.

Lojowska M, Mulckhuyse M, Hermans EJ, & Roelofs K. (2019). Unconscious processing of coarse visual information during anticipatory threat. Consciousness and Cognition, pdf.


Bramson B, Jensen O, Toni I, & Roelofs K. (2018). Cortical oscillatory mechanisms supporting the control of human social-emotional actions. Journal of Neuroscience, pdf.

Tyborowska A, Volman I, Niermann HCM, Pouwels JL, Smeekens S, Cillessen AHN, Toni I, & Roelofs K. (2018). Early-life and pubertal stress differentially modulate grey matter development in human adolescents. Scientific Reports, pdf.

Koch SBJ, Mars RB, Toni I, & Roelofs K (2018). Emotional control, reappraised. Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews, pdf.

Ludwig L, Pasman JA, Nicholson T, Aybek S, David AS, Tuck S, Kanaan RA, Roelofs K, Carson A, & Stone J. (2018). Stressful life events and maltreatment in conversion (functional neurological) disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. The Lancet Psychiatry, pdf.

Terburg D, Scheggia D, Del Rio RT, Klumpers F, Ciobanu AC, Morgan B, … & van Honk, J. (2018). The basolateral amygdala is essential for rapid escape: A human and rodent study. Cell, pdf.

Zhang W, van Ast VA, Klumpers F, Roelofs K, & Hermans EJ. (2018) Memory Contextualization: The Role of Prefrontal Cortex in Functional Integration across Item and Context Representational Regions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, pdf.

Lojowska M, Ling S, Roelofs K, & Hermans E. (2018). Visuocortical changes during a freezing-like state in humans. NeuroImage, pdf.

de Voogd LD, Kanen JW, Neville DA, Roelofs K, Fernández G, & Hermans EJ. (2018). Eye-movement intervention enhances extinction via amygdala deactivation. Journal of Neuroscience, pdf.

van der Schaaf ME, Roelofs K, de Lange FP, Geurts DEM, van der Meer JWM, Knoop H, & Toni I. (2018). Fatigue Is Associated With Altered Monitoring and Preparation of Physical Effort in Patients With Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, pdf.

Hartogsveld B, Bramson B, Vijayakumar SH, van Campen AD, Marques JP, Roelofs K, Toni I, Bekkering H, & Mars R. (2018). Lateral frontal pole and relational processing: Activation patterns and connectivity profile. Behavioural Brain Research. pdf.

Bertsch K, Roelofs K, Roch PJ, Ma B, Hensel S, Herpertz SC, & Volman I. (2018). Neural correlates of emotional action control in anger-prone women with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, pdf.

Niermann HCM, Figner B, Tyborowska A, Cillessen AHN, & Roelofs K. (2018). Investigation of the Stability of Human Freezing-Like Responses to Social Threat From Mid to Late Adolescence. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, pdf.

Struijs SY, Lamers F, Rinck M, Roelofs K, Spinhoven P, & Penninx BWJH. (2018). The predictive value of Approach and Avoidance tendencies on the onset and course of depression and anxiety disorders. Depression & Anxiety, pdf.

Enter D, Hutschemaekers MHM, & Roelofs, K. (2018). Neuroendocrinological aspects of social anxiety and aggression-related disorders. Routledge International Handbook of Social Neuroendocrinology


Roelofs K. (2017). Freeze for action: neurobiological mechanisms in animal and human freezing. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B., pdf.

Kalisch, Baker, Basten, Boks, Bonanno, Brummelman, Chmitorz, Fernàndez, Fiebach, Galatzer-Levy, Geuze, Groppa, Helmreich, Hendler, Hermans, Jovanovic, Kubiak, Lieb, Lutz, Müller, Murray, Nievergelt, Reif, Roelofs, Rutten, Sander, Schick, Tüscher, Van Diest, van Harmelen, Veer, Vermetten, Vinkers, Wager, Walter, Wessa Wibral, Kleim, International Resilience Allliance (intresa). (2017). The resilience framework as a strategy to combat stress-related disorders. Nature Human Behavior, pdf.

Mulckhuyse M, Engelmann JB, Schutter D, Roelofs K (2017). Right posterior parietal cortex is involved in disengaging from threat: a 1 Hz rTMS study. SCAN, pdf

Niermann HCM, Figner B., Tyborowska A, van Peer JM, Cillessen AH, & Roelofs K. (2017). Defensive freezing links Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal-axis activity and internalizing symptoms in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, pdf.

van der Schaaf ME, de Lange FP, Schmits IC, Geurts DE, Roelofs K, van der Meer JW, Toni I, & Knoop H. (2017). Prefrontal Structure Varies as a Function of Pain Symptoms in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Biological Psychiatry, pdf.

Bas-Hoogendam JM, van Steenbergen H, Pannekoek JN, Fouche JP, Lochner C, Hattingh CJ, Cremers HR, Furmark T, Månsson KNT, Frick A, Engman J, Boraxbekk CJ, Carlbring P, Andersson G, Fredrikson M, Straube T, Peterburs J, Klumpp H, Phan KL, Roelofs K, Veltman DJ, van Tol M, Stein DJ, van der Wee NJA. (2017). Voxel-Based Morphometry Multi-Center Mega-Analysis of Brain Structure in Social Anxiety Disorder. Neuroimage, Clinical, pdf.

Bas-Hoogendam JM, van Steenbergen H, Pannekoek JN, Fouche JP, Lochner C, Hattingh CJ,Cremers HR, Furmark T, Månsson KNT, Frick A, Engman J, Boraxbekk CJ, Carlbring P, Andersson G, Fredrikson M, Straube T, Peterburs J, Klumpp H, Phan KL, Roelofs K, Stein DJ & van der Wee NJA (2017). Sample size matters: A voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysisof gray matter volume in social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychiatry, pdf.

Radke S, Volman I, Kokal I, Roelofs K, de Bruijn ER, & Toni I. (2017). Oxytocin reduces amygdala responses during threat approach. Psychoneuroendocrinology, pdf.

van Peer JM, Enter D, van Steenbergen H, Spinhoven P, & Roelofs K. (2017). Exogenous Testosterone Affects Early Threat Processing in Socially Anxious and Healthy Women. Biological Psychology, pdf.

Niermann HCM, Figner B, & Roelofs K. (2017). Individual differences in defensive stress-responses: The potential relevance for psychopathology. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, pdf.

De Boer M, Kokal I, Blokpoel M, Liu R, Roelofs K, van Rooij I, Toni I. (2017). Oxytocin modulates human communication by enhancing cognitive exploration. Psychoneuroendocrinology, pdf.

Fragkaki I, Roelofs K, Stins J, Jongedijk RA, & Hagenaars MA. (2017). Reduced freezing in PTSD patients while watching affective pictures. Frontiers in Psychiatry, pdf.

Wit AE, Bosker FJ, Giltay EJ, Kloet CS, Roelofs K, Pelt J, … & Schoevers RA. (2017). Testosterone in human studies: Modest associations between plasma and salivary measurements. Andrologia, pdf.

Davis ML, Papini S, Rosenfield D, Roelofs K, Kolb S, Powers MB, & Smits JAJ. (2017). A randomized controlled study of power posing before public speaking exposure for social anxiety disorder: No evidence for augmentative effects. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, pdf.

Koch SBJ, Klumpers F, Zhang W, Hashemi MM, Kaldewaij R, van Ast VA, Smit AS & Roelofs K (2017). The role of automatic defensive responses in the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms in police recruits: protocol of a prospective study, European Journal of Psychotraumatology, pdf.


Tyborowska A, Volman I, Smeekens S, Toni I, & Roelofs K. (2016). Testosterone during Puberty Shifts Emotional Control from Pulvinar to Anterior Prefrontal Cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, pdf.

Volman I, von Borries AKL, Bulten BH, Verkes RJ, Toni I, & Roelofs K. (2016). Testosterone modulates altered prefrontal control of emotional actions in psychopathic offenders. eneuro, pdf.

Ly V, Bergmann TO, Gladwin TE, Volman I, Usberti N, Cools , & Roelofs K. (2016). Reduced Affective Biasing of Instrumental Action With tDCS Over the Prefrontal Cortex. Brain stimulation, pdf.

Ly V, von Borries AK, Brazil IA, Bulten BH, Cools R, & Roelofs K. (2016). Reduced Transfer of Affective Value to Instrumental Behavior in Violent Offenders. Journal of abnormal psychology, pdf.

Fragkaki I, Stins J, Roelofs K, Jongedijk RA, & Hagenaars MA. (2016). Tonic immobility differentiates stress responses in PTSD. Brain and Behavior, pdf.

Cremers HR, & Roelofs K. (2016). Social anxiety disorder: a critical overview of neurocognitive research. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, pdf.

Kaldewaij R, Koch SBJ, Volman I, Toni I, & Roelofs K. (2016). On the Control of Social Approach–Avoidance Behavior: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms. Current topics in behavioral neurosciences, pdf.

Gladwin TE, Hashemi MM, van Ast V, & Roelofs K. (2016). Ready and waiting: Freezing as active action preparation under threat. Neuroscience letters, pdf.

Enter D, Spinhoven P, & Roelofs K. (2016). Dare to Approach Single Dose Testosterone Administration Promotes Threat Approach in Patients With Social Anxiety Disorder. Clinical Psychological Science, pdf.

Dierolf AM, Arlt LE, Roelofs K, Kölsch M, Hülsemann MJ, Schächinger H, & Naumann E. (2016). Effects of basal and acute cortisol on cognitive flexibility in an emotional task switching paradigm in men. Hormones and behavior, pdf.

Roelofs K, & Pasman J. (2016). Stress, childhood trauma, and cognitive functions in functional neurologic disorders. Handbook of clinical neurology, pdf.


Radke S, Volman I, Mehta PH, van Son V, Enter D, Sanfey A, Toni I, de Bruijn ERA, & Roloefs K. (2015). Testosterone biases the amygdala towards social threat approach. Science Advances, pdf.

Enter D, Terburg D, Harrewijn A, Spinhoven P, Roelofs K. (2015). Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology, pdf.

Mehta PH, van Son V, Welker KM, Prasad S, Sanfey AG, Smidts A, Roelofs K. (2015) Exogenous testosterone in women enhances and inhibits competitive decision-making depending on victory-defeat experience and trait dominance. Psychoneuroendocrinology, pdf.

Cremers HR, Veer IM, Spinhoven P, Rombouts SARB, Yarkoni T, Wager TD, & Roelofs K. (2015). Altered cortical-amygdala coupling in social anxiety disorder during the anticipation of giving a public speech. Psychological medicine, pdf.

Lojowska M, Gladwin TE, Hermans EJ, & Roelofs K. (2015). Freezing promotes perception of coarse visual features. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, pdf.

Roelofs K, & Cremers HR. (2015). Cortical-amygdala Decoupling during Stress in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder. Biological Psychiatry

Niermann HCM, Figner B, Tyborowska A, Cillessen A, & Roelofs K. (2015). Effects of stress on bodily freezing in adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, pdf.

Cremers HR, Veer IM, Spinhoven P, Rombouts SARB, & Roelofs K. (2015). Neural sensitivity to social reward and punishment anticipation in social anxiety disorder. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, pdf.

Smeets-Janssen M, Roelofs K, van Pelt J, Spinhoven P, Zitman FG, Penninx B, Giltay E. (2015). Salivary testosterone is consistently and positively associated with extraversion: results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Neuropsychobiology, pdf.

Stins JF, Kempe CL, Hagenaars MA, Beek PJ, Roelofs K. (2015). Attention and postural control in patients with conversion paresis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, pdf.

Niermann HCM, Ly V, Smeekens S, Figner B, Riksen-Walraven JM, Roelofs K. (2015). Infant attachment predicts bodily freezing in adolescence: evidence from a prospective longitudinal study. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, pdf.

van Der Schaaf ME, Schmits IC, Roerink M, Geurts DE, Toni I, Roelofs K, De Lange FP, Nater UM, van der Meer JW, & Knoop H. (2015). Investigating neural mechanisms of change of cognitive behavioural therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, pdf.

van Duijvenvoorde AC, Huizenga HM, Somerville LH, Delgado MR, Powers A, Weeda WD,Casey BJ, Weber EU, & Figner, B. (2015). Neural correlates of expected risks and returns in risky choice across development. The Journal of Neuroscience, pdf.

Decker JH, Figner B, & Steinglass JE. (2015). On weight and waiting: delay discounting in anorexia nervosa pretreatment and posttreatment. Biological psychiatry, pdf.

de Kleine R, Roelofs K, & van Minnen A. (2015). Conversiestoornis (functioneel-neurologisch-symptoomstoornis). In Franken I, Muris P, & Denys D. (Red.), Psychopathologie. Oorzaken, diagnostiek en behandeling (pp. 479-490), 2de druk Editie DSM-5. Utrecht: De Tijdstroom Uitgeverij.


Hagenaars, M. A., Oitzl, M., & Roelofs, K. (2014). Updating freeze: aligning animal and human research. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 47, 165-176.

Ly V., Hyus Q.J., Stins, J.F., Roelofs, K. Cools R. (2014). Individual differences in bodily freezing predict emotional biases in decision making. Front Behav Neurosci 3;8:237.

Enter D, Spinhoven P, Roelofs K. (2014). Alleviating social avoidance: Effects of single dose testosterone administration on approach-avoidance action. Horm Behav 65(4):351-4.

Defoe, I. N., Dubas, J. S., Figner, B., & van Aken, M. A. (2015). A meta-analysis on age differences in risky decision making: Adolescents versus children and adults. Psychological bulletin, 141(1), 48.

Brown EC, Tas C, Kuzu D, Esen-Danaci A, Roelofs K, Brüne M. (2014). Social approach and avoidance behaviour for negative emotions is modulated by endogenous oxytocin and paranoia in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 219(3):436-42.

Stins JF, Lobel A, Roelofs K, Beek PJ. (2014). Social embodiment in directional stepping behavior. Cogn Process 15(3):245-52.

Hagenaars MA, Roelofs K, Stins JF. (2014). Human freezing in response to affective films. Anxiety Stress Coping 27(1):27-37.


Volman I, Verhagen L, den Ouden HE, Fernández G, Rijpkema M, Franke B, Toni I, Roelofs K. (2013). Reduced serotonin transporter availability decreases prefrontalcontrol of the amygdala. J Neurosci 33(21):8974-9.

Ly V, Cools R, Roelofs K. (2013). Aversive disinhibition of behavior and striatal signaling in social avoidance. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 9(10):1530-6.

Boksem MA, Mehta PH, Van den Bergh B, van Son V, Trautmann ST, Roelofs K, Smidts A, Sanfey AG. (2013). Testosterone inhibits trust but promotes reciprocity. Psychol Sci 24(11):2306-14.

Radke S, Roelofs K, de Bruijn ER. (2013). Acting on anger: social anxiety modulates approach-avoidance tendencies after oxytocin administration. Psychol Sci 24(8):1573-8.

Fouche JP, van Der Wee NJ, Roelofs K, Stein DJ. (2013). Recent advances in the brain imaging of social anxiety disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol 28(1):102-5.

Kret ME, Roelofs K, Stekelenburg JJ, de Gelder B. (2013). Emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers’ face expressions, fixations and pupil-size. Front Hum Neurosci 18;7:810.

Demenescu LR, Kortekaas R, Cremers HR, Renken RJ, van Tol MJ, van der Wee NJ, Veltman DJ, den Boer JA, Roelofs K, Aleman A. (2013). Amygdala activation and its functional connectivity during perception of emotional faces in social phobia and panic disorder. J Psychiatr Res 47(8):1024-31.

Kret ME, Stekelenburg JJ, Roelofs K, de Gelder B. (2013). Perception of face and body expressions using electromyography, pupillometry and gaze measures. Front Psychol. 8;4:28.

Fouche, J. P., Van der Wee, N. J. A., Roelofs, K., & Stein, D. J. (2013). Recent advances in the brain imaging of social anxiety disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol 28(1):102-5.

Van Strien, T., Roelofs. K., & De Weerth, C. (2013) Cortisol reactivity and distress-induced emotional eating. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38(5):677-84

Beilen. M., Roelofs, K. (2013). Conversie: een stoornis in de cognitieve aansturing. In: Eling, Aleman Krabbedam. Cognitieve Neuropsychiatrie. Een Procesbenadering van Symptomen. Boom. Amsterdam p. 219-235 (chapter).


Hermans, E. J., Henckens, M. J., Roelofs, K., & Fernández, G. (2012). Fear bradycardia and activation of the human periaqueductal grey. Neuroimage 66: 278-287.

Enter, D. E., Colzato, L. S., & Roelofs, K. (2012). Dopamine transporter polymorphisms affect social approach-avoidance tendencies. Genes, Brain and Behavior 11: 671-676.

Giltay, E. J., Enter, D., Zitman, F. G., Penninx, B. W. J. H., Van Pelt, J., Spinhoven, P., Roelofs, K. (2012). Salivary testosterone: Associations with depression, anxiety disorders, and antidepressant use in a large cohort study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 72, 205-213.

Hagenaars MA, Stins JF, Roelofs K. (2012). Aversive life events enhance human freezing responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 141(1):98-105.

Von Borries, A. K. L., Volman, I., De Bruijn, E. R. A., Bulten, B. H., Verkes, R. J., & Roelofs, K. (2012). Psychopaths lack the automatic avoidance of social threat: Relation to instrumental aggression. Psychiatry Res 200(2-3):761-6.

Kleine R., Roelofs, K., van Minnen A. (2012). Conversiestoornis. In: Franken I, Muris, P., Denys, D. Basisboek Psychopathologie. De Tijdstroom, Utrecht, p473-484. (chapter)


Spinhoven P, Elzinga BM, Hovens JG, Roelofs K, van Oppen P, Zitman FG, Penninx BW. (2011).Positive and negative life events and personality traits in predicting courseof depression and anxiety. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 124(6):462-73.

Volman, I., Toni, I., Verhagen, L., & Roelofs, K. (2011). Endogenous testosterone modulates prefrontal-amygdala connectivity during social emotional behavior. Cerebral Cortex 21(10):2282-90.

Cremers, H., Van Tol, M., Roelofs, K., Aleman, A., Zitman, F. G., Van Buchem, M. A., Veltman, D. J., & Van der Wee, N. J. A. (2011). Extraversion is linked to volume of the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. PloS ONE 6(12):e2842.

Bakvis, P., & Roelofs, K. (2011). Basal cortisol and threat vigilance in patients with psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures (PNES). In: Hallett et al, Psychogenic Movement Disorders and Other Conversion Disorders, pp. 187-188. Cambridge University Press. (Chapter).

Volman, I. , Roelofs, K., Koch, S., Verhagen, L., & Toni. I (2011). Inhibition of anterior prefrontal cortex impairs control over social emotional actions. Current Biology 21(20):1766-70.

Spinhoven, P., Elzinga, B. M., Hovens, J. G. F. M., Roelofs, K., Van Oppen, P., Zitman, F. G., Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2011). The interrelationship of personality dimensions and life events in predicting the two-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

Hagenaars, M. A., Stins, J., & Roelofs, K. (2011). Prior aversive life events enhance human freezing responses. J Exp Psychol Gen. 141(1):98-105.

Bakvis, P., Spinhoven, Ph., & Roelofs, K. (2011). Automatic Avoidance Tendencies in Patients with Psychogenic Non Epileptic Seizures. Seizure, 20, 628-634.

Stins, J.F., Roelofs, K., Villan, J., Kooijman, K., Hagenaars, M.A., & Beek, P.J. (2011). Walk to me when I smile, step back when I’m angry: Emotional faces modulate whole-body approach-avoidance behaviors. Experimental Brain Research, 212, 603-611.

Spinhoven, Ph, Elzinga, B., Roelofs, K., Hovens, J., Oppen, P., Zitman, F., & Penninx, B. (2011). The effects of neuroticism, extraversion, and positive and negative life events on a one-year course of depressive symptoms in euthymic previously depressed patients versus healthy controls. Journal of nervous and Mental Disease, 199, 684-689.

Putman, P. & Roelofs. K. (2011). Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 439-448. (Invited expert review)

Spinhoven, P., Roelofs, K., Hovens, J. G., Elzinga, B. M., Van Oppen, P., Zitman, F. G., & Penninx, B. W. (2011). Personality, life events and the course of anxiety and depression. European Journal of Personality, 25, 443-452.

Roelofs, K., Toni, I., & De Lange, F. (2011). Action control in conversion paralysis: evidence from motor imagery. In: Hallett et al, Psychogenic Movement Disorders and Other Conversion Disorders, pp. 160-167. Cambridge University Press. (chapter).


Bakvis, P., Spinhoven, P., Putman, P., Zitman, F.G., & Roelofs. K. (2010). The effect of stress induction on working memory in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Epilepsy & Behavior,19, 448-454.

Roelofs, K., Hagenaar, M., & Stins, J. (2010). Facing Freeze: Social threat induces bodily freeze in humans. Psychological Science, 21(11): 1575-81.

Van Peer, J., Rotteveel, M., Spinhoven, P., Tollenaar, M., & Roelofs, K. (2010). Affect-congruent approach and withdrawal movements of happy and angry faces facilitate affective categorization. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 863 – 875.

Spinhoven, P., Elzinga, B. M., Hovens, J. G. F. M., Roelofs, K., Zitman, F. G., Van Oppen, P., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2010). The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders ,126(1-2):103-112.

Roelofs, K., & Spinhoven, P. (2010). Conversion disorder . In: Weiner, I. B. & Graighead, W. E. (Eds.), The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (4th edition), pp. 407-410. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Chapter)

Roelofs, K. & Putman, P. & Schouten, S. & Lange, W.G. & Volman, I.A.C. & Rinck, M. (2010). Gaze direction differentially affects avoidance tendencies to happy and angry faces in socially anxious individuals. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, pp. 290-294.

De Lange, F.P., & Toni, I., & Roelofs, K. (2010). Altered connectivity between prefrontal and sensorimotor cortex in conversion paralysis. Neuropsychologia, 48, pp. 1782-1788.

Bakvis, P. & Spinhoven, P. & Giltay, E.J. & Kuyk, J. & Edelbroek, P.M. & Zitman, F.G. & Roelofs, K. (2010). Basal hypercortisolism and trauma in patients with Psychogenic Non Epileptic Seizures. Epilepsia, 51 (5), pp. 752-759.

Cremers, H.R. & Aleman, A. & Demenscu, L. & Renken, R. & Tol, M., van & Wee, N.J.A., van der & Veltman, D.J. & Roelofs, K. (2010).Neuroticism modulates amygdala – medial prefrontal connectivity in response to negative emotional faces. Neuroimage, 49, pp. 963-970.

Van Peer, Spinhoven, P. & Roelofs, K. (2010).Psychophysiological evidence for cortisol-induced reduction in early bias for implicit social threat in social phobia. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, pp. 21-32.

Elzinga, B.M. & Spinhoven, P. & Berretty, E.W. & Jong, P., de & Roelofs, K. (2010). The role of childhood abuse in HPS-axis reactivity in Social Anxiety Disorder: A pilot study. Biological Psychology, 83, pp. 1-6.


Bakvis, P. & Spinhoven, P. & Roelofs, K. (2009). Basal cortisol is positively correlated to threat vigilance in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Epilepsy & Behavior, 16, pp. 558-560.

Peer, J.M., van & Spinhoven, P. & Dijk, J.G., van & Roelofs, K. (2009). Cortisol-induced enhancement of emotional face processing in social phobia depends on symptom severity and motivational context. Biological Psychology, 81, pp. 123-130.

Roelofs, K. & Peer, J.M., van & Berretty, E.W. & Jong, P.J., de & Spinhoven, P. & Elzinga, B.M. (2009). Hypothamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis hyperresponsiveness is associated with increased social avoidance behavior in social phobia.Biological Psychiatry, 65, pp. 336-343.

Roelofs, K. & Minelli, A. & Mars, R.B. & Peer, J.M., van & Toni, I. (2009). On the neural control of social emotional behavior. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 4, pp. 50-58.

Ly, V. & Roelofs, K. (2009). Social anxiety and cognitive expectancy of aversive outcome in avoidance conditioning. Behaviour Research and Therapy, pp. 840-847.

Bakvis, P. & Roelofs, K. & Kuyk, J. & Edelbroek, P.M. & Swinkels, W.A.M. & Spinhoven, P. (2009). Trauma, stress, and preconscious threat processing in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Epilepsia, 50, pp. 1001-1011.


Peer, J.M., van & Roelofs, K. & Spinhoven, P. (2008). Cortisol administration enhances the coupling of midfrontal delta and beta oscillations. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 67, pp. 144-150.

Elzinga, B.M. & Roelofs, K. & Tollenaar, M.S. & Bakvis, P. & Pelt, J., van & Spinhoven, P. (2008). Diminished cortisol responses to psychosocial stress associated with lifetime adverse events. A study among healthy young subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, pp. 227-237.

Moene, F. & Roelofs, K. (2008). Hypnosis in the treatment of conversion and somatization disorders. In: Nash, M.R. & Barnier, A.J. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Hypnosis., pp. 625-645. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Part of book or chapter of book)

Lange, F.P., de & Roelofs, K. & Toni, I. (2008). Motor imagery: A window into the mechanisms and alterations of the motor system. Cortex, 44, pp. 494-506.

Reedijk, W.B. & Rijn, M.A., van & Roelofs, K. & Tuijl, J.P. & Marinus, J. & Hilten, J.J., van (2008). Psychological features of patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I related dystonia. Movement Disorders, 23, pp. 1551-1559. 

Spinhoven, P. & Roelofs, K. (2008). Trauma en onverklaarde lichamelijke klachten. Neuropsychiatrie & gedragsneurologie, 7, pp. 32-36.


Hagenaars, M. A., Van Minnen, A., & Hoogduin, K. A. L. (2007). Peritraumatic psychological and somatoform dissociation in predicting PTSD symptoms. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 952-954.

Lange, F.P., de & Roelofs, K. & Toni, I. (2007). Increased self-monitoring during imagined movements in conversion paralysis. Neuropsychologia, 45, 2051-2058.

Peer, J.M., van & Roelofs, K. & Rotteveel, M. & Dijk, J.G., van & Spinhoven, P. & Ridderinkhof, K.R. (2007). The effects of cortisol administration on approach-avoidance behavior: An event-related potential study. Biological Psychology, 76 (3), 135-146.

Roelofs, K. & Bakvis, P. & Hermans, E.J. & Pelt, J., van & Honk, J., van (2007). The effects of social stress and cortisol responses on the preconscious selective attention to social threat. Biological Psychiatry, 75, 1-7.

Roelofs, K. & Spinhoven, P. (2007). Trauma and medically unexplained symptoms. Towards an integration of cognitive and neuro-biological accounts. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 798-820.

2006 and before

Bakvis, P. & Roelofs, K. (2006). Effects of social stress on the processing of threat in patients with psychogenic-pseudoepileptic attacks. Epilepsia

Roelofs, K. & Bruijn, E.R.A., de & Galen, G.P., van (2006). Hyperactive action monitoring during motor-initiation in conversion paralysis: an event-related potential study.Biological Psychology, 71, pp. 316-325.

Hagenaars, M. & Roelofs, K. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. & Minnen, A., van (2006). Motor and sensory dissociative phenomena associated with induced catalepsy: A brief communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 54, pp. 234-244.

Roelofs, K. (2005). A cognitive account on conversion and somatization disorder; commentary on Merskey and Mai Somatization and conversion disorders: a review. In: Maj, M., Akiskal, H.S., Mezzich, J.E., Okasha, A. (Eds.), Somatoform Disorders (WPA series Evidence and Experience in Psychiatry), 9. , pp. 44-47. Chichester, England: Wiley. (Part of book or chapter of book)

Elzinga, B.M. & Roelofs, K. (2005). Cortisol-induced impairments of working memory require acute sympathetic activation.Behavioral Neuroscience, 119, pp. 98-103.

Roelofs, K. & Elzinga, B.M. & Rotteveel, M. (2005). Erratum to “The effects of stress-induced cortisol responses on approach-avoidance behavior” [Psychoneuroendocrinology 30 (2005) 665–677]. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, p. 930.

Roelofs, K. & Elzinga, B.M. & Rotteveel, M. (2005). The effects of stress-induced cortisol responses on approach-avoidance behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, pp. 665-677.

Roelofs, K. & Spinhoven, P. & Sandijck, P. & Moene, F. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. (2005). The impact of early trauma and recent life-events on symptom severity in patients with conversion disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, pp. 508-514.

Spinhoven, P. & Roelofs, K. & Moene, F. & Kuyk, J. & Nijenhuis, E.M. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. & Dyck, R., van (2004). Trauma and dissociation in conversion disorder and chronic pelvic pain.International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 34, pp. 303-316.

Hoogduin, C.A.L. & Moene, F. & Roelofs, K. (2003). Conversiestoornis. HSK-Krant, wetenschappelijke uitgave, 4, pp. 71-92.

Roelofs, K. (2003). De conversieverlamming. Een nieuwe kijk op een controversiële stoornis. Patient Care. Het tijdschrift voor psychiater en neuroloog, 2, pp. 6-10.

Roelofs, K. (2003). De conversieverlamming: Neuropsychologische theorieën en empirische ondersteuning. , Op het grensvlak van neurology en psychiatrie, pp. 49-54. Nijmegen: PAOG, UMC St Radboud. (Part of book or chapter of book)

Roelofs, K. & Galen, G.P., van & Eling, P & Keijsers, G.P.J. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. (2003). Endogenous and exogenous spatial attention in patients with conversion paresis. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 20, pp. 733-745.

Roelofs, K. (2002). Disturbed information processing in conversion disorder. An empirical evaluation of dissociation theory. Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, 140pp. (Nijmegen, Drukkerij Quickprint B.V.) C.A.L., Hoogduin, G.P., Galen, G.P.J., Keijsers. (Dissertation)

Minnen, A., van & Wessel, I. & Dijkstra, T. & Roelofs, K. (2002). Changes in PTSD patiens’ narratives during prolonged exposure therapy: a replication and extension. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15, pp. 225-258.

Roelofs, K. & Keijsers, G.P.J. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. & Näring, G.W.B. & Moene, F. (2002). Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, pp. 1908-1913.

Roelofs, K. & Näring, G.W.B. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. & Moene, F. & Sandijck, P. (2002). Dissociative symptoms and hypnotic susceptibility in conversion disorder. Preliminary results. In: Hoogduin, C.A.L., Schaap, C.P.D.R., Berk, H.A.A., de (Eds.), Issues on Hypnosis, pp. 95-102. Zeist: Cure & Care (part of book or chapter of book)

Roelofs, K. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. & Keijsers, G.P.J. & Näring, G.W.B. & Moene, F. & Sandijck, P. (2002). Hypnotic susceptibility in patients with conversion disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, pp. 390-395.

Roelofs, K. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. & Keijsers, G.P.J. (2002). Motor imagery during hypnotic arm paralysis in high and low hypnotizable subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 50 (1), pp. 51-66.

Roelofs, K. & Galen, G.P., van & Keijsers, G.P.J. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. (2002). Motor initiation and execution in patients with conversion paralysis. Acta Psychologica, 110, pp. 21-34.

Näring, G.W.B. & Roelofs, K. & Prime, W. & Mulders, D. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. (2002). The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C: preliminary norms for Dutch students. In: Hoogduin, C.A.L., Schaap, C.P.D.R., Berk, H.A.A., de (Eds.), Issues on Hypnosis, pp. 65-69. Zeist: Cure & Care (part of book or chapter of book)

Spinhoven, P. & Elzinga, B.M. & Roelofs, K. (2002). Theoretische modellen van PTSS. In: Minnen, A., van & Verbaak, M. (Eds.), Psychologische interventies bij posttraumatische stressstoornis Zeist: Cure & Care (part of book or chapter of book).

Moene, F. & Spinhoven, P. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. & Sandyck, P. & Roelofs, K. (2001). Hypnotizability, dissociation and trauma in patients with a conversion disorder: an exploratory study. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 8, pp. 400-410.

Roelofs, K. & Näring, G.W.B. & Keijsers, G.P.J. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. & Galen, G.P., van & Maris, E. (2001). Motor imagery in conversion paralysis. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 6 (1), pp. 21-40.

Roelofs, K. & Näring, G.W.B. & Moene, F. & Hoogduin, C.A.L. (2000). The question of symptom lateralization in conversion disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 49, pp. 21-25.